There are three different uses of dollars signs in formulas. In cell B1 we will insert the different "$" formula references to cell A1:

- =$A$1
- =$A1
- =A$1

What do these mean?

- =$A$1 - This means that if you copy this formula to any cell (example: D3) in any other column or row, it will still be and always be a reference to A1.
- =$A1 - This means that the column reference will always be "A", but the row will change based on the row of the cell you're placing the formula in. So, if you copy it to D3, then the value with show what is in $A3.
- =A$1 - This means that the row reference will always be "1", but the column will change based on the row of the cell you're placing the formula in. So, if you copy it to D3, then the value with show what is in D$1.

What do we use these for? Let's take a look:

In column "A" I have placed the values 1,2,3,4 in cells A1, A2, A3, A4. The values in cells B1 to C4 will be the result of copying that formula to each of those cells.

=$A$1

No matter where the formula is copied (B1:C4), the result is the value in "A1"

=$A1

The copied formula will always show a value from column "A", but the row will be based on the cell the formula is copied to.

For this next example, I changed the data a bit to show how the formula works. The typed values are in cells A1, B1, C1, D1. The formula will be copied to cells A2 to D5.

=A$1

As you can see, the formula maintains the values in Row 1 (Row has the "$"), but changes with the columns (Column "A" does NOT have a "$").

In conclusion, the use of the dollar sign "$" is very useful when you are planning on having to copy the formula across multiple cells. A properly placed "$" will allow you to ensure formula integrity.